Wednesday, 2 November 2016

Humming-bird Hawkmoth

The Humming-bird Hawkmoth is a migrant to Britain, mainly the southern counties. They visit a large variety of garden flora including Honeysuckle, Lavender and Red Valerian etc.

This particular Humming-bird Hawkmoth was photographed in Malta

Saturday, 22 October 2016

Common Wasp

The Common Wasp [Vespula Vulgaris] is a late flying insect in Britain and flies between July and  November. These particular Wasps can be found around most of the world in counties such as China, Australia, New Zealand, India and Europe.

A female Common Wasp hunting for food/insects for her siblings back at the nest
in late July

A Common Wasp taking a drink from my Garden pond

A fresh Queen Common Wasp in my garden, late October. This Queen will find somewhere to
hibernate for the winter before starting her own colony in the spring.

Saturday, 1 October 2016

Small Heath

The Small Heath is commonly found throughout the U.K. in any grassland habitat, fields, roadside verges, woodland clearings etc. And normally spend a large part of their time well down in amongst the vegetation.

A male Small Heath where you would normally find this species

The male is smaller than the female and are quite similar in appearance but not the same.

A male Small Heath showing the undersides of it's wings and,
a rare glimpse of a small part of the upper wing.

The female's forewing undersides are a lighter orange in colour to that of the males which are slightly darker.

A female Small Heath 

Both sexes always land [roost, feeding etc.] with their wings closed. The upper side of the wings in both sexes are orange, again the females are slightly lighter than the males. There are two, sometimes three broods a year. They fly between late April and late June/early July and, between late July/late September and, if there is a third brood, October. They overwinter as a caterpillar in stages/instars.


Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Red Admiral

Large numbers of Red Admirals visit our shores [Britain] every year from mainland Europe, [starting out from North Africa and, Southern Europe] but they are also known to hibernate here during the long winter months. Red Admirals can be seen in any month of the year even during the winter. When, on an exceptional warm day, having been awoken from their winter sleep by the heat of the sun, they can be found flying just about anywhere, especially in the south of Britain.


Red Admirals really start to emerge in good numbers from their winter slumber in early spring. Both sexes are alike and love basking in the sun on both the ground and on vegetation with their wings fully open.


Opened winged male Red Admiral basking in the sun

Closed winged female Red Admiral

Male Red Admiral aberration, Bialbata [one white spot on each of the orange bands on the
Butterfly's forewings] which are commonly found.

Once mated the females start laying their eggs [ovum] on the upper side of fresh, small leaves of Nettle plants [normally leaves towards the bottom of the stem in the spring] in a sunny position. The earliest dates i have witnessed ovum being laid was on 16th, 19th, 25th March.


Red Admiral ovum on a fresh/small Nettle leaf


Freshly laid ovum

On one occasion on 20th July 2016, i witnessed a female ovipositing on a female Nettle flower which is quite unusual, [on the 23rd July 2013 i witnessed a female Comma also lay an egg on a female Nettle flower, so maybe commoner than i originally thought with both Red Admirals and Commas at this particular time of year]. The eggs hatch after about a week. They have 2-3 broods a year depending on the weather, with the final brood overwintering as an adult.


Red Admiral's ovum on a female Nettle flower

Red Admirals feed on an enormous variety of flowers both in the garden and in the wild. And in late summer the flowers of Ivy and rotting fruit, [especially Apples] are visited.



Female Red Admiral feeding on Ragwort in the height of summer

Male Red Admiral feeding on Ivy flowers late summer

Adult males like a lot of other male species of butterflies, can also be found taking salts/minerals from damp ground, Horse droppings and, even discarded empty Snail shells after Song Thrushes have made a meal of the occupants.


Male Red Admiral taking salts/minerals for a discarded Snail 's shell


















Friday, 2 September 2016

Clouded Yellow

These photographs depict the same male Clouded Yellow.

Found late afternoon, early evening whilst it was feeding on this Thistle.....

...when the sun disappeared, it went to roost on the same Thistle...

....early morning the male Clouded Yellow is now covered in dew and,
possibly ice after a cold night with a clear sky.




















Thursday, 25 August 2016

Large Red Damselfly

 The Large Red Damselfly is one of the commonest found in Britain and one of the first to be seen. They can be found on any type of water habitat, lakes, ponds, rivers, fields and gardens ponds, canals, etc. They fly from May to August.


Two adults copulating, with the female below the male ovipositing [laying eggs] in my garden pond.



This immature Large Red Damselfly is still clinging to the Nymph casing that it has recently emerged from and, is still drying itself.



















Wednesday, 24 August 2016

Poplar Leaf Beetle

Poplar Leaf Beetle [chrysomela populi] having just emerged from the black and white pupa its clinging to,  and will stay there until it completely dries before it flies off.


Monday, 22 August 2016

Gatekeeper and the Crab Spider

A Male Gatekeeper feeding on a Thistle flower unaware of the Crab Spider looking for its next meal. But the butterfly flies safely away, leaving the Spider to go hungry for now.


Brown Hairstreak, life cycle

A typical habitat for the Brown Hairstreak, large Ash trees surrounded by Oak and below, lots of the larval food plant, Blackthorn.

Large Ash tree in the middle of photo, with lots of Blackthorn along the bottom of the trees. There are 13 large Ash trees
around this meadow and the Blackthorn is growing along most of it.

Brown Hairstreaks live in the canopy of large Ash trees and feed on honeydew provided by Aphids. The females descend to lay their eggs on Blackthorn plants, when they can be observed low down nectering on local flora and also basking in the sun. Males sometimes fly down to feed on flowers when honeydew is in short supply.

A male Brown Hairstreak that has come down from the tree tops
to feed on the local Thistles.
The female Brown Hairstreaks start laying their ovum [eggs] about the middle of August. They are laid on the stems of Blackthorn on both mature plants and young shoots, anywhere from 150mm [6inches] to 1650mm [5.5feet] high, and in sunny sheltered positions, [so i have been lead to believe]. This behaviour was witnessed when i joined Francis Kelly and a team of enthusiasts  from the Surrey branch of B.C. doing an egg search/count earlier this year, [2016, and  each egg found was authenticated, 57 where found.

I conducted my own search for Brown Hairstreak eggs later that year [in the Autumn] in the same area, [Cranliegh Fields] when i found 210 eggs, [between September-November 2016]. The two fields that i conducted my search were divided into eight areas, Area A, B, C, D, E, F, G,H. The most productive area was Area A, where 78 eggs were found in a very well sheltered area with no sun with a north westerly outlook another 41 eggs in Area G, were found in a similar position with a North-westerly outlook, in a rather well sheltered situation with no sun. Area B, 12 eggs, Area C, 10 eggs,  Area D, 5 eggs and  Area E, 7eggs, [Both with very little Blackthorn] Area F, 33 eggs [lots of good Blackthorn] were in sun/shade. Area H which is in full sun, [with an excellent expanse and the most Blackthorn in one area] which i thought i would find good numbers, only produced 24 eggs. I followed this up with a further search in an adjoining field, finding a further 109 eggs. 23 eggs were found in a very well sheltered area facing south, south-west. A high majority of the other eggs were found facing north, north-west. Total egg count 319. Total search hours, 13. They overwinter at this stage.

Brown Hairstreak ovum 150mm [6 inches] off the ground.
The egg is about 2 thirds up the middle of the photo/front stem.

Two Brown Hairstreak ovum was found on this isolated Blackthorn plant, out in the open in this meadow.The
following winter 4 ovum were found on this particular plant.

A  sunny but, sheltered area of Blackthorn where eggs were laid.
The ovum [eggs] are laid singly, normally one by itself, but sometimes they can be found in small clusters of two or more, the most i have found together were a group of four, [probably laid by the same female].

Four  Brown Hairstreak ovum laid in a small cluster, which is
quite uncommon.

Two Brown Hairstreak ovum as they would commonly be found.


A freshly laid Brown Hairstreak ovum

A Brown Hairstreak ovum after a long winter and close to hatching.
Photographed, 19th April.

The tiny larva start to emerge anywhere from late April to the middle of May, and sometimes later, depending on the weather. During the day the larva rest on the underside of the Blackthorn leaves, normally feeding only at night, [but this is not 100% as i have witnessed them feeding by day]. There are three moults, [four instars]. The larval stage lasts about eight weeks.

1st instar Brown Hairstreak larva, about 1.5mm in length. Less than
24 hours after emerging from the egg, [feeding early evening]. Date 26th April.

Brown Hairstreak 1st instar larva, 8 days old and still only 2.5-3mmm in length.
This could be down to the cold weather conditions at the time, which would slow both the
larva's eating and growth rate down.

A late 2nd instar Brown Hairstreak larva, 8mm in length, 24 days old, 19th May. The green larva
is beautifully camouflaged and, will stay this colour until its close to pupating. On the 2nd of June
2 weeks later i found another 2nd instar larva, again 8mm in length. Indicating the time difference
between hatching larva.
3rd instar Brown Hairstreak larva resting on the back of a Blackthorn leaf,
10mm in length, 29 days old. The weather is a lot warmer now and, the larva
is growing at a much faster pace.

After only 10 days as a 3rd instar, the Brown Hairstreak larva has made
its final moult, length 12mm,  34 days old.

When the larva are ready to pupate, they descend the host plant to find a suitable crevice in the soil, or a leaf amongst the litter at the base of the Blackthorn to make it's final changes.

After 57 days the 4th instar Brown Hairstreak larva descended to the base of the Blackthorn
to start the final colour change of the larva before finding a suitable place to pupate.

A few hours later the Brown Hairstreak larva has changed  colour


Another hour later and the larva has changed it's appearance again, [rather like that
of a Chameleon] blending in with it's surroundings.

24 hours later, having changed colour again, it seems that the final instar Brown Hairstreak larva
 has chosen this leaf to pupate on.


But no, the larva decided to move. Not being happy with it's first choice of leaf
went on a walk-about to find something more suitable. Same larva as above 48
hours later, different leaf, and it's final chosen place to pupate.

The following day, early morning. The Brown Hairstreak larva has made it's final
colour change before pupating. Date, 25th June.

8 hours later the same day the larva has pupated. Date, 25th June.

A week before the Brown Hairstreak finally emerges.

24 hours before the butterfly emerges the pupa turns a beautiful black in colour. Just
short of one year from when the egg was first laid.